What is Cooling Tower?

what is cooling tower

Imagine a structure that was first built in 1918 still finds an important place in our industries, the Cooling tower. Let us understand why the cooling towers are still very relevant!

A cooling tower is a structure specially built to reject excessive and waste heat into the atmosphere. Cooling towers are heat exchangers where air and water are brought into direct contact with each other so as to expel the excessive heat out. As this action takes place in the best cooling tower, a small amount of water gets evaporated; this helps in reducing the amount of heat present in the water.

This heat rejection device, cooling tower rejects the waste heat present in the water to the atmosphere by cooling a water stream at a lower pressure. Cooling tower can either use the process of evaporation of water to remove heat from water or the process used in closed circuit dry cooling tower that are based on cooling of air to lower the temperature.

FRP Cooling Tower

There is a type of cooling tower, the FRP Cooling tower that is the best cooling tower structure for smaller cooling towers. The FRP Cooling tower (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is known for its capability to resist corrosion. FRP Cooling tower has become one of the most common and best cooling tower structural materials for small cooling towers.

Heat Rejection Process in Cooling Tower

The most common type of heat rejection process used in the best cooling tower is the ‘evaporative technique’ that allows a small amount of water to evaporate after cooling the water stream. This heat evaporated from the water stream is transferred to the air stream present in cooling tower that raises the temperature of the air and its relative humidity by 100%, and then this air is finally discharged to the atmosphere. Cooling tower are an evaporative heat rejection device that are commonly used to lower the water temperatures better than the ones achieved with air cooling or dry heat rejection devices such as the radiator of the car. Therefore the technique of using the best cooling tower is cost-effective and energy efficient for cooling. The cooling potential of a cooling tower is immense and cannot be ignored.

Cooling towers have two types of rejection equipment: direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit). The most common, popular and best cooling tower is an open direct contact rejection device but there is another one that is the closed circuit cooling tower which too is a cooling tower.

An open circuit(direct) cooling tower is an enclosed structure that has external means to distribute the warm water supplied to it over a packing like the labyrinth or fill. This fill provides an expanded air-water interface for heating of the air as well as the evaporation process. The water is cooled as it falls down by the force of gravity while being in direct contact of the air that passes over it. This cooled water is later collected in a water basin that is exactly below the fill from there it is pumped back through the process to absorb more heat and this heat is finally released into the air.

The closed circuit (indirect) cooling tower functions without any direct contact of the air and the fluid being cooled. Unlike the open circuit cooling towers, the indirect cooling tower has two different fluid circuits. One circuit is external where the water is re-circulated on the outside of the second circuit that is composed of tube bundles which are further connected to the hot fluid that being cooled and later returns in a closed circuit. Air is finally drawn out through the re-circulating water that is outside the hot tubes, helping cooling water vapors to evaporate to the opening of the cooling tower.

Common Applications of Cooling Towers

The cooling tower can be installed for various applications, but following are the most common applications of the best cooling towers by Kool Drop Cooling Tower Pvt. Ltd.:

  1. Oil Refineries
  2. Chemical Plants
  3. Petrochemical Plants
  4. Thermal Power Stations
  5. HVAC

There are two size ranges of cooling towers where the smallest cooling tower is designed to take care of water streams that have just few gallons of water supplied per minute in small pipes, such for residences and the largest one cools thousands of gallons per minute in large pipes (15 feet) such as in large power plants.

How do Cooling Towers Work?

You must have seen the back side of your refrigerator and I’m sure you’ve seen the compressor. The compressor is pushing the gas up to cool the chamber while the heat is pulled out of the air. This keeps your food cool and fresh on the inside.

How do Cooling Towers Work?

How a Cooling Tower Works:

Cooling systems also work the same way to treat the heat in the water. This is a pure heat exchanging system which promulgates efficient cool induction in the water by heat transfer. An air conditioner’s condenser is the main brain behind cooling which is blown by a big fan enclosed inside.

When hot water goes out from the heat condenser inlet, it reaches the top of the tower and exits through the water distribution system from spray nozzles onto film fills. Here heat exchange takes place and the vapor is sucked out using the blower. The cold water passes down the drift separators down to the basin where it is then recycled back.

A cooling tower comprises of different pieces of structures and parts. These are:

1. Cooling tower packing – It is one of the most important parts of a cooling tower. The packing enables both air and water to expose at wet bulb point and harness maximum contact to enable cooling.

2. Drift separators – These awry designed packing of sheets avoids small droplets of water being carried away by the air flow from the cooling tower and lets these drops fall down to the basin.

3. Gear and fans – The fan installed on top of the tower sucks up the heat from the water and throws it up into the atmosphere. Both the fan and the drive gear being the turning parts of the system require some maintenance.

4. Water distribution system – This system includes all the systems wherein water is collected, distributed and sprayed using the nozzles.

5. Air intake louvers – These grills stop water splashes from the water collection tank and also filter out debris from the atmosphere coming into the water tank.

Other cooling tower parts:

Noise absorption mats, noise dampers, protective grille, frost protection and thermostats, level probes, dry running protection, access hatches, water treatment installations and more.

The combination of all these features makes up for a powerful and complete cooling tower. Being the best heat dispensation system, a cooling tower is a feasible approach towards water consumption and heat treatment for your organization.

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