The Process of Cooling Tower Water Treatment System
Industrial companies often use a cooling tower to facilitate proper functioning of their equipment and to ensure their longer service life but for longer cooling tower operations, a process of cooling tower water treatment system is necessary to ensure the towers operate without problems.
Cooling tower water treatment is important because if left untreated, the water can encourage scaling, bacterial growth, fouling and its corrosion can deplete plant performance or damage the tower parts also.
So what exactly is a Cooling Tower Water Treatment System?
A cooling tower water treatment system is a systematic process to restore water used in a cooling tower to its natural density. It removes dirt, chlorination and other impurities from the circulating and blowdown water that can damage both tower and industrial equipment.
Before setting up a suitable treatment system, a number of things are considered:
1. Type of cooling tower installed (circulating or looped).
2. Feed water type, hardness and quality.
3. Mandatory manufacture requirements to follow to treat equipment and cool down water
4. Composition quality of circulatory water
5. Concentration levels
6. Process of discharge
7. Reuse of blowndown water
8. Heat exchanger mechanism
A water treatment system works perfectly when these conditions are met as the quality of feed water in the tower's circulation intact. To ensure water quality, it passes through clarification, softening and ultrafiltration. Sometimes, it is also chemically treated.
It is best to consult a water treatment expert who can give the most adequate preposition to maintain your desired water property. He will identify the right system to elongate your tower life and equipment.
Importance of a Cooling Tower Water Treatment System:
Water treatment is vital for the good performance of a Cooling Tower because it regulates harmful alkaline and bacteria dangerous to equipment and the tower plant. These elements are:
1. Alkaline: Calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate to create limescale and block water flow.
2. Chlorides: Its formation corrodes metals and tower equipment.
3. Hardness count: Alkaline properties develop scaling in the grills on the tower and heat exchangers.
4. Iron and phosphate: It gives a foul odor.
5. Algae: Bacterial and microorganism overgrowth is developed leading to fouling, corrosion and blockage.
6. Silica: Hardens water into scalene deposits.
7. Sulfates: They corrode and rust metals
8. Totals suspended solids (TSS): Solids like silt, animal and plant matter increase biofilm burden and corrode equipment.
9. Total dissolved solids (TDS): Nitrogen, sulfur and calcium bicarbonate come in contact with air and mix into water to build up scales and corrosion.
Cooling tower water treatment: System of Working
Cooling tower water can be preserved using selective treatment owing to its chemistry/quality and the tower's needs.
Water added during vaporization to compensate for water loss is called makeup water. Before it is continuously added to the cooling tower as a raw water source i.e. city water, tap water, plant wastewater, well water, etc., it can either be left untreated during deposit to the tower process or if need be, processed and filtered through technological procedures that remove hardness and silica to adjust its pH level.
This properly equalized water conforms to the tower evaporation cycles and reduces the water bleed ratio.
However, the common steps of water treatment system involving both makeup water and bleed water can include these methods:
Filtration and Ultrafiltration
Running cooling tower water comes in contact with many suspended particles, calcium deposits, sediments and algae. It must be cleaned to maintain its density and propensity. The organic matter is drained out in the early process because membrane and fill protection is necessary. Suspended matter up to a micron can also be trapped in this process.
Ion exchange resins act as water purifying agents in filtration if makeup water or process water is hard to risk component life and cause corrosion and scales. Dealkalization is done to remove alkalinity ions from water and makes it softer to use. The softening resin exchanges work wonders to attract hard molecules from water. A charged up sodium ion resin pulls calcium, iron or magnesium molecules from water cleans it. The process inhibits development of these contaminants to cause rust and scale.
Chemicals are also added to the water because they not only control acidity but also control microbe growth. Some of these chemicals include:
1. Scale blockers: Using elements like phosphoric acid inhibits contaminant to develop into scalene and chlorinated deposits.
2. Corrosion inhibitors: These chemicals neutralize acidity level as that can eat away metal components.
3. Algae controllers: Biocide like bromine help control the growth of microbes and biofilms.
Chemical treatments may be expensive so good treatment of water can save this expenditure.
A prominent filtration process, side stream filtration cleans the water going to be recirculated throughout in the chamber. When water filters through a side stream process, it is filtered via centrifugal force and the contaminants that enter through drift chamber deposit in a separate container.
This is an excellent process to drive out contamination from the circulating water inside the tower but about 10% of it will be filtered and the rest can go through other processes to clean out.
This process enables treatment of blowndown water or bleed to pass though reverse osmosis or ion exchange. The main focus of this treatment is to conserve water for recycle. While some places might have water scarcity, there the method of post treatment can serve the purpose while reducing the need for makeup water. RO will allow concentration of liquid and solid contaminants into one point and removing waste while returning the cleansed water to the tower for reuse.
Water treatment needs to be properly adehered to while respecting local municipal permission. Since water from your blowdown is to be discharged, it must conform government regulations and demineralization and calcite removal systems are wonderful solutions as a cost effective methodology in an efficient manner.
Cooling towers have continuous working capacity and a huge volume of water is processed every minute releasing calcium, iron and silica into the cleansing mechanism but this system must be properly inspected to create a hegemony over contaminant formation.
KoolDrop has been providing service of cooling tower water treatment systems to its clients across India and helping them meet their requirements and resolve shortcomings. You can Contact us if you want to share any information with us or simply have any query about cooling tower water treatment. So if you want to avail of our service, just visit the site and we will be ready to help you!
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